The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades. The conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, and while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus. They also adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories.
The Qing dynasty , officially the Great Qing ( / tʃ ɪ ŋ / ), was the last imperial dynasty of China . It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China . The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history.
The Qing dynasty ( English: / tʃ ɪ ŋ / ) was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria (modern Northeast China ) in the 17th century and became known by various names. Although it was established by the Manchu people , a Tungusic people ethnically unrelated to the native Chinese ( Han Chinese ), it was widely known in English as China or the Chinese Empire both during its existence, especially internationally, and after the fall of the dynasty.